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Research in English Education - chap5 差分

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![[John wang will answer the questions concerning observing second language teaching ]]
!What are the differences between natural and instructional settings?
<<natural setting refering to the situation where learners learn the language in their daily life while instructional settings refering to the formal instructions that done in classroom. in natural acquisition setting. learners are rarely corrected. language is not presented step by step. the learner is surrounded by the language for many hours each day. The learner usually encounters a mumber of different people who use the target language proficiently.Learners observe or participate in many different typeo of language enents. Learners must often use their limited second language ability to respond to questions or get information. Modified input is available in many one to one conversations. while in traditional insturctional setting . Errors are frequently corrected. Input is structurally graded, simplified, and sequenced by teacher and textbook. Learning is often limited to only a few hours a week. The teacher is often the only native or proficient speaker the student comes in contact with. Students experience a limited range of language discourse types. Students often feel great pressure to speak or write the second language and to do so correctly [[poker online|http://www.pokerplus.ro]]  from the very beginning. Teacher often use the learners' native language to give instructions or in other classroom management events.>>
!Please define the following two types of instruction:
!! Structure-based
<<The focus of this approach is on forms. The primary focus is on knowledge teaching such as grammar teaching and display questions are used instead of genuine questions . Error correction is also perceived as one of the features of the approach.>>
!! Communication-based
<<The focus of this approach is on meaning. Althouth conversational interaction and genuine questions are mostly expected , a brief references to grammatical accuracy also occurs sometime.   >>
!!Please define and give examples of the following:
<<write text here>>
!!Error Feedback
<<Error feedback basically refering to teacher's reactions toward students' errors. There are several ways that teacher could use to react to the errors. >>
!!Negotiation of Meaning
<<During the process of interaction some misunderstanding of meaning could happen between the interlocutors, the process that made from the interlocutors to exchange the ideas and to ensure the meaning is understandble to each other is referred as negotiation of meaning. Eg, s: i was mad this morning because father said lost the job. T: who lost the job , you or your father? s: my father.>>
!!Genuine questions
<<Real quentions, used under communicative approach. The questions to which the asker doesn't know the answers in advance. Eg, what are you planing to do for your summer vacation? >>
!!Display Questions
<<Contradictory to genuine questions, a pretending question to which the asker already knows the answer in advance and the purpose is to help students to practice speaking forms not on getting any informations. Eg, T: are you a student? S: yes, i am.>>
!!Metalinguistic Comments
<<A error feedback strategy in which the comments are given from metalinguist perspective. such as refering to a particular grammar point. Eg, T: is that your book? S: no, it is my father book. T: you should say father's book. remember the possessive s.>>
!Please define and give examples of the following:
!!Explicit Corrections
<<Explict corrections refers to the explicit provision of the correct form. Eg, s: i go shoping yesterday. T: you should say i went shoping yesterday, we use verb past forms to refering things that happened at a particular past time, such as yesterday , or last month. >>
!!Recasts
<<one of the error feedback strategies , instead of confronting studens' errors directly like what happens in explicit corrections teacher recast the sentence in correct form. Eg, S: i do the homework last night . T: oh, you did the homework last night.  >>
!!Clarification Requests
<<teacher request students to express the ideas more clearer. Eg,T:do you wash your dog? s:very much. T: excuse me. what do you mean ?(clarification request). >>
!!Elicitation
<<refers to at least three techniques that teachers use to directly elicit the correct forms from the students. First , teachers elicit completion of their own utterance. Second, teachers use questions to elicit correct forms. Third, reachers occasionally ask students to reformulate their utterance. Eg, i have to wash my dogs every day. T: excuse me , you wash your??? S: dogs. >>
!!Repetition
<<refers to the teacher's repetition, in isolation, of the student's erroneous utterance. In most cases, teachers adjust their intonation so as to highlight the error. Eg,S: he is driving a bike. T: driving? riding. He is riding a bike. >>